The idea was to assemble all French people from all parts of the country around a common history or, should I say, a common legend. The Roman kingdom was probably under Clovis' control by 491, because in the same year Clovis successfully moved against a small number of Thuringians in the eastern Gaul, near the Burgundian border. His dynasty, the Merovingians, survived for more than 200 years. Why Is the Clovis First Theory Important? While the Histories provides broad background and engaging stories about the early Frankish world, the Clovis of the Histories is more a literary fiction than a historical reality. [14], In the same year, Clovis convinced Prince Chlodoric to murder his father, earning him his nickname. The historical Clovis remains a shadowy figure: a warrior who solidified a kingdom, corresponded with bishops, and converted to Catholic Christianity. Clovis (reigned 481/482–511), the son of Childeric, unified Gaul with the exception of areas in the southeast. Recent scholarship has revealed flaws in Gregory’s account of Clovis and raised questions about the ultimate purpose of the Histories. An analysis of the dates showed that people made and used the iconic Clovis spear-point and other distinctive tools for only 300 years. Clovis (Latin: Chlodovechus; reconstructed Frankish: *Hlodowig; c. 466 – 27 November 511)[1] was the first king of the Franks to unite all of the Frankish tribes under one ruler, changing the form of leadership from a group of royal chieftains to rule by a single king and ensuring that the kingship was passed down to his heirs. Clovis was born about 465 and succeeded his father Childeric in 481, when he would have been 16 or so. c. 494: Clovis' and Clotilde's first child, Ingomer is born and dies. [14], In 500 or 501 the relationship between the Burgundian brothers took the turn to the worse began scheming against his brother. [16] He also integrated many of Syagrius' units into his own army. [7][8] The name is found in other West Germanic languages, with cognates including Old English Hloðwig, Old Saxon Hluduco, and Old High German Hludwīg (variant Hluotwīg). Clovis’s father, Childeric, died a pagan and was buried in Tournai in a tomb surrounded by barbarian horse burials. [5][6], In Middle Dutch, a Franconian language closely related to Frankish, the name was rendered as Lodewijch (cf. • Further Reading • The most important source for the life of Clovis and the character of Merovingian Gaul is the History of the Franks by Gregory of Tours, written between 575 and 585 and available in several English translations. [41]:497 St. Clovis enjoyed a persistent campaign from French royal authorities that few non-French national or dynastic saints did. 1 near Clovis, New Mexico in the 1920s and 1930s. These later political, linguistic, and cultural entities became the Kingdom of France, the myriad German States, and the semi-autonomous kingdoms of Burgundy and Lotharingia. modern Dutch Lodewijk and Lowik). Clovis has been made important in the 19th century when an historiography was established together with education in the 3rd republic. The Arian heresy was the form of Christianity to which most Germanic peoples initially converted. [26], In 509, Clovis visited his old ally, Ragnachar in Cambrai. His name in Frankish was Chlodovec. His conversion to the Roman Catholic form of Christianity served to set him apart from the other Germanic kings of his time, such as those of the Visigoths and the Vandals, who had converted from Germanic paganism to Arian Christianity. ", https://www.britishmuseum.org/collection/object/P_1865-0610-312, "Clovis I | Biography, Significance, & Facts", https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Clovis_I&oldid=996297906, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License. [citation needed], In 507, following Vouillé, Clovis heard about Chararic's plan to escape from his monastic prison and had him murdered. Battle of Tolbiac. Clovis statue at the Abbey Church of Saint-Denis, The Sons of Clovis, by Georges Moreau de Tours (1877), In later centuries, Clovis was venerated as a saint in France. Clovis had been a king with no fixed capital and no central administration beyond his entourage. His name in Frankish was Chlodovec. Two angels came down from Heaven with a banner of fleurs-de-lys for him, sent directly from God. [18], Clovis came to the realisation that he wouldn't be able to rule Gaul without the help of the clergy and aimed to please the clergy by taking a Catholic wife. Clovis is important in the historiography of France as "the first king of what would become France".[3]. Clovis' failed to complete his objective via military means, therefore, he was constrained to statecraft, which proved fruitful for the Armonici shared Clovis' disdain for the Arian Visigoths. Let us know if you have suggestions to improve this article (requires login). [44]:34 There was also a shrine to him in the Abbey of Saint Genevieve in Paris. The division of the Frankish kingdom among the sons of Clovis at his death in 511. Ancient people of North America’s Clovis culture migrated to South America roughly 11,000 years ago, then mysteriously vanished, researchers have discovered. [41]:497–502 Despite Clovis' presence in Paris, his cultus was largely based in the south of France. Clovis married the Roman Catholic Burgundian princess Clotilda and had five children with her. Based on the attested forms, the original name is reconstructed in the Frankish language as *Hlodowig, which means 'glorious in battle' or 'glorious warrior'. This partition created the new political units of the Kingdoms of Rheims, Orléans, Paris and Soissons, and inaugurated a tradition that would lead to disunity lasting until the end of the Merovingian dynasty in 751. Facts about Clovis 1: The Kingship. Clovis was remembered in France in perhaps the most royal way after his death, as 18 kings of France took on the name Louis, a later French form of the name Clovis. Lv 7. Shortly before his death, Clovis called a synod of Gallic bishops to meet in Orléans to reform the Church and create a strong link between the Crown and the Catholic episcopate. Clovis's conversion to Christianity in the 500s AD made France the oldest and first of Christian monarchies in Europe. The details of this event have been passed down by Gregory of Tours, who recorded them many years later in the 6th century. A millennium and a half later he remains significant. During the battle Chalaric betrayed his comrades by refusing to take part in the fighting. By signing up for this email, you are agreeing to news, offers, and information from Encyclopaedia Britannica. In 463 he fought in conjunction with Aegidius, the magister militum of northern Gaul, to defeat the Visigoths in Orléans. The Arian Controversy [5] The latter turned into Ludwig in Modern German, although the king Clovis himself is generally named Chlodwig. Only Chlotar, who outlived his brothers, ruled a united kingdom, but he in turn divided it among his sons. His remains were relocated to Saint Denis Basilica in the mid- to late-18th century. Clovis' and Clotilde's fourth son. c. 507: Clovis liberates Aquitainia and murders various Frankish reguli. He proceeded to drown his sister-in-law and force his niece, Chrona, into a convent; another niece, Clotilde, fled to the court of her other uncle. This was the First Council of Orléans. Senior Program Officer in the Enterprise Office of the National Endowment for the Humanities in Washington D.C. Get a Britannica Premium subscription and gain access to exclusive content. Favourite answer. The best modern descriptions of the life and times of Clovis are The Cambridge Medieval History, vol. His account indicates that prior to the battle, Clovis gave gifts to the church and made appeals to St. Martin of Tours, for which he was rewarded with victory, blessed with miracles, and honoured with an imperial consulship by Anastasius I. Why was Clovis important to the history of France? By his conversion to Christianity he made himself the ally of the papacy and its protector as well as that of the people, who were mostly Catholics. The period of the Clovis people coincides with the extinction of mammoths, giant sloth, camels and giant bison in North America. His conversion to Catholicism was that of one man, not that of his kingdom, but it can be seen as pivotal in Frankish history. [19], Around 493 AD, he secured an alliance with the Ostrogoths through the marriage of his sister Audofleda to their king, Theodoric the Great. Corrections? Clovis’ conversion into Catholicism was that of one man and not of his kingdom, but it holds great importance in Frankish history. When Clovis finally converted, he becomes for Gregory a “new Constantine,” the emperor who Christianized the Roman Empire in the early 4th century. The company incurred an adjusted loss of $7.40 per share, wider than the year-ago adjusted loss of $6.68. [50]:54 The veneration of St. Clovis was not exclusive to France as a print by the Holy Roman woodcut designer Leonhard Beck made for the Habsburg monarchs depicts Clovis as St. Chlodoveus,[51] St. Boniface's Abbey in Munich depicted St. Chlodoveus as a saint worthy of emulation because of his advocacy,[52]:239 and the Florentine Baroque painter Carlo Dolci painted a large depiction of St. Clovis for the Imperial Apartment in the Uffizi Gallery. [4] The adoption by Clovis of Catholicism (as opposed to the Arianism of most other Germanic tribes) led to widespread conversion among the Frankish peoples; to religious unification across what is now modern-day France, Belgium and Germany; three centuries later, to Charlemagne's alliance with the Bishop of Rome; and in the middle of the 10th century under Otto I the Great, to the consequent birth of the early Holy Roman Empire. Following the murder, Clovis betrayed Chlodoric and had his envoys strike him down. Clovis reported total revenues of $143 million, up almost 50% year over year. The dates of Clovis vary from region to region. By the time of his death in either 511 or 513, Clovis had conquered several smaller Frankish tribes in the northeast of Gaul or modern day France. Much was written about Clovis by Gregory of Tours in his Histories (often called the History of the Franks), which appeared more than 50 years after Clovis’s death. [17] Now Christian, Clovis confined his prisoners, Chararic and his son to a monastery. On the other hand, Bernard Bachrach has argued that his conversion from Frankish paganism alienated many of the other Frankish sub-kings and weakened his military position over the next few years. Clovis being the first king of the Franks became the founder of France. Finding himself in a precarious position this uncle, Godegisel, decided to ally himself to Clovis by marrying his exiled niece to the Frankish king. It was Latinised as Ludovicus, which evolved into Louis; it was to become the most common name for French monarchs. While it may or may not have been his intention, this division was the cause of much internal discord in Gaul. The son of Childeric I and Basina, Clovis inherited the … His conversion to Catholicism was that of one man and not of his kingdom, but it can be seen as pivotal in Frankish history. [46]:130 Aymeric not only referred to Clovis as a saint but also prayed for St. Clovis' intercession. Clovis’s life as a religious man illustrates the challenges then faced by the Catholic bishops and illuminates their concerns with evangelism. Before him was a dying Roman Kingdom, part of a dying Roman Empire. Clovis (Latin: Chlodovechus; reconstructed Frankish: *Hlodowig; c. 466 – 27 November 511) was the first king of the Franks to unite all of the Frankish tribes under one ruler, changing the form of leadership from a group of royal chieftains to rule by a single king and ensuring that the kingship was passed down to his heirs. Clovis got his kingship from his family. Clovis was born a pagan but converted to Roman Catholicism. An important influence that King Clovis has exhibited was in the unification of people. He uses florid rhetoric to describe the arguments with which Clotilda attempted to persuade her husband to abandon paganism. However, Gregory and other contemporary authors were not wholly wrong in describing Clovis, a warrior king, as a religious figure. Clovis incurred loss of $1.28 per share for the first quarter of 2020, narrower than the Zacks Consensus Estimate of a loss of $1.29 and the year-ago loss of $1.63 per share. 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